PRAYER (contemporary language)
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Collects revised at GC 2015.
Last updated: 12 Sept. 2015
ALFRED THE GREAT
KING OF THE WEST SAXONS (26 OCT 899)
In the 800's the cycle partly repeated itself, as the Christian Anglo-Saxons were invaded by the Danes, pagan raiders, who rapidly conquered the northeast portion of England. They seemed about to conquer the entire country and eliminate all resistance when they were turned back by Alfred, King of the West Saxons.
Alfred was born in 849 at Wantage, Berkshire, youngest of five sons of King Aethelwulf. He wished to become a monk, but after the deaths (all in battle, I think) of his father and his four older brothers, he was made king in 871. He proved to be skilled at military tactics, and devised a defensive formation which the Danish charge was unable to break. After a decisive victory at Edington in 878, he reached an agreement with the Danish leader Guthrum, by which the Danes would retain a portion of northeastern England and be given other concessions in return for their agreement to accept baptism and Christian instruction. From a later point of view, it seems obvious that such a promise could not involve a genuine change of heart, and was therefore meaningless (and indeed, one Dane complained that the white robe that he was given after his baptism was not nearly so fine as the two that he had received after the two previous times that he had been defeated and baptized). However, Alfred's judgement proved sound. Guthrum, from his point of view, agreed to become a vassal of Christ. His nobles and chief warriors, being his vassals, were thereby obligated to give their feudal allegiance to Christ as well. They accepted baptism and the presence among them of Christian priests and missionaries to instruct them. The door was opened for conversions on a more personal level in that and succeeding generations.
In his later years, having secured a large degree of military security
for his people, Alfred devoted his energies to repairing the damage that
war had done to the cultural life of his people. He translated Boethius'
Consolations of Philosophy into Old English, and brought in scholars
from Wales and the Continent with whose help various writings of Bede,
Augustine of Canterbury, and Gregory the Great were likewise translated.
He was much impressed by the provisions in the Law of Moses for the protection
of the rights of ordinary citizens, and gave order that similar provisions
should be made part of English law. He promoted the education of the parish
clergy. In one of his treatises, he wrote:
He died on 26 October 899, and was buried in the Old Minster at Winchester. Alone among English monarchs, he is known as "the Great."
The writer G K Chesterton has written a long narrative poem about Alfred, called, "The Ballad of the White Horse." In my view, it would be improved by abridgement (I would, for example, terminate the prologue after the line "And laid peace on the sea"), but I think it well worth reading as it stands, both for the history and (with minor reservations) for the theology.
by James Kiefer